Organisation: Aston University
This should be a 2-3 paragraph summary of the purpose and conclusion of the report.
What were the key objectives of this work? This is not a list of the learning outcomes but instead clearly states the requirement to design an audio amplifier based on a specific set of ICs and working to a specific specification. The description needs to include the whole scope of the project including the requirements for the outer case.
3. Technical Background
This section provides the background information required for the rest of the report. It should be the most heavily referenced part of the report – with numeric referencing used . It should contain a brief explanation on the ICs used (including how they are normally connected), how theTL071 can be connected to work as a bandpass filter and what a buffer is. You might also want to discuss audio frequency ranges and the difference between stereo and mono signals.
You might want to summarise some of the key points from Neil Storey’s book pages 254-259 but keep the content to what is used in your design.
4. Design Description
4.1. Design requirements
This section deals with the measurement of the output of your music device, calculations of the required gain (and what the limit is) and how you derived the low and high cutoff bandwidths. The final specifications should be given in the table below.
Electrical Characteristic Value Notes
Input signal (mV) What device?
Supply voltage (V) Type of connector / battery?
Lower cut-off frequency (Hz)
Upper cut-off frequency (Hz)
Output power of power amplifier (W)
Resistance of speaker (Ohms)
Maximum output current of power amplifier (mA)
Maximum output voltage of power amplifier (V)
Target gain (dB/ratio)
Volume control? Implemented how?
On/off? Passive or active?
Table 1 ADD TITLE – what does this table show?
4.2. Overview of the design
This section should include a top-level block diagram showing the different parts of system and a specification of each block of hardware (including the inputs and outputs). An example of a Bluetooth system is shown in Figure 1. Numerically label figures (using Insert>Caption) and make sure the source of the figure is referenced. Use this type of block diagram to discuss how the different parts of the system work.
Figure 1Example systems diagram. .
4.3. Detailed description
Electronic circuit design
Figure 2 Circuit diagram – exported from Proteus as a bitmap not as a screen capture. You might split the circuit up into different parts to deal with separately. In which case put the compete diagram in the appendices.
How does each part of the circuit work? What components define key parameters such as cut-off frequencies and gain? What do things like the decoupling capacitors do? What happens to the sound quality of the system if key capacitors are halved or doubled in value?
4.4. PCB design
Figure 3 PCB diagram – exported from Proteus as a bitmap not as a screen capture. Include board dimensions and an explanation of any important positioning and reasons behind this.
Discuss the important parts of the design and give the dimensions of the board.
4.5. Mechanical design
Figure 4 Mechanical diagram – showing how everything fits together
This should contain information common to the following sections…. for example, a statement on how you powered and tested your circuits.
5.2. Prototype testing and results
This should be split into the two stages of your amplifier and include simulated and experimental acquired graphs. Do not include tables of results – they should go in the appendices.
Figure 5 Graph showing simulated and experimental frequency response of the amplifier first stage
Figure 6 Graph showing experimental frequency response of the two-stage amplifier
5.3. PCB testing and results
Again do not include tables of results – they should go in the appendices. Instead include the final characterization of the PCB performance and any explanation of why there are differences.
Figure 7 Graph showing measured frequency response measured response of final PCB
In this section you should also include information about how everything fits together mechanically.
Figure 8 Photographs / mechanical design of final housing illustrating how the electronics fits inside
Figure 9 Photograph of final housing on the outside
How well did the design work? Did the experimental and simulated results agree? If not, why not? Is there anything that had to be changed to make it work? If this is the case include the revised circuit diagram. Reflect on both the electronics and mechanical design. Anything you would change if you repeated the process?
These reference numbers should appear in the main text and indicate where the information came from originally. In engineering we usually use numeric referencing . You can and should reference datasheets e.g. see reference . You should ideally not use and reference Wikipedia . The references are used to illustrate the depth of your background research and help the reader find further relevant information. Reference  gives examples of references for lots of different types of documents and online material. The important thing is to include all of the important information to allow the reader to find the document and to be consistent in the style of presenting this information.
The IET, “A Guide to Technical Report Writing”, 2014, [Online], Available: http://www.theiet.org/students/resources/tech-report-writing.cfm, last accessed 18/01/2016
 M Kannisto, “Build a simple wireless stereo audio system for the outdoors”,2012, http://electronicdesign.com/communications/build-simple-wireless-bluetooth-stereo-audio-system-outdoors, Electronic Design, last accessed 5/1/2016
Nottingham University, Studying Effectively: Referencing Styles, https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/studyingeffectively/writing/referencing/styles.aspx, last accessed 5/1/2016
 “How to cite references: IEEE Documentation style”, [Online], Available: http://www2.ece.gatech.edu/academic/courses/ece4007/ECE4007A/deliverables/proposal/2011spring/IEEE_citations/IEEE%20Citation%20Guidelines2.pdf, last accessed 5/1/2016
 Texas Instruments, “High speed CMOS logic analog multiplexers/demultiplexers,” 74HC4051 datasheet, Nov. 1997 [Revised Sept.
 WriteCheck, Why isn’t Wikipedia a reputablesource?, http://en.writecheck.com/blog/2013/03/15/why-isnt-wikipedia-a-reputable-source last accessed 5/1/2016
7.1. Tables of results (with table headings and captions)
7.2. Bill of Materials (BoM)
It is important to keep a record of the components you have used (and ideally were they can be bought from, part number and the cost). A BoM list can be extracted from Proteus – select the symbol showing a page and dollar sign in the tool bar. Proteus does not record the specific details required for ordering components so if you have this information add it to the report (especially for less common items).
7.3. Full circuit diagram if it has not been included in the main report
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