This module helps students to understand mega-events. The module is focused on three of these events in particular: the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cups and World Expos. There are several subsidiary objectives. The first is to examine particular issues associated with these types of events. The second is to review if and how these events illustrate issues in the events sector generally. The third is to evaluate how mega-events shed light on wider issues including urban regeneration and the management of large-scale projects.
Teaching and Learning Programme
Wednesday 20th January – Mega-events: an introduction
Reading: Chapter 10 in Bladen, C et al. (2012) Events Management: an Introduction. Routledge.
Wednesday 27th January – The evolution of mega-events
Reading: Liao, H. & Pitts, A. (2006): A brief historical review of Olympic urbanisation, The International Journal of the History of Sport, 23:7, pp.1232-1252
Wednesday 3rd February – Bidding and the legacies of mega-event bids
Reading: Oliver, R. (2014). The legacies of losing: rethinking the ‘failure’ of Toronto’s Olympic Games bids. Sport in Society, 17(2), 204-217.
Wednesday 10th February – Venue and legacy planning
Reading: Chapter 4 in Frawley, S. and Adair, D. Eds. (2013) Managing the Olympics. MacMillan
+ Chapter 6 in Frawley, S. and Adair, D. Eds. (2014) Managing the Football World Cup. MacMillan
Wednesday 17th February – Urban regeneration (+ Olympic Park Site Visit)
Reading: Smith, A. (2014) De-Risking East London. Olympic Regeneration Planning 2000-2012. European Planning Studies 22(9), pp. 1919-1939.
Wednesday 24th February – Leveraging social and economic development
Reading: Smith, A. (2014) Leveraging sport mega-events: new model or convenient justification? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6(1), pp.15-30.
Wednesday 9th March –World Expos
Reading: De Groote, P. (2005) A Multidisciplinary analysis of world’s fairs (expos) and their effects. Tourism Review 60(1), pp.12-19.
Wednesday 16th March – The FIFA World Cup
Reading: De Almeida, B. S., Bolsmann, C., Júnior, W. M., & de Souza, J. (2015). Rationales, rhetoric and realities: FIFA’s World Cup in South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(3), pp.265-282.
Wednesday 30th March – Key issues (1) Sponsorship and ticketing
Reading: James, M. and Osborn, G. (2011), London 2012 and the Impact of the UK’s Olympic and Paralympic Legislation: Protecting Commerce or Preserving Culture?.The Modern Law Review, 74: 410–429.
Wednesday 6th April – Key issues (2) Security and displacement
Reading: Giulianotti., R and Klauser, F (2010) Security Governance and Sport Mega-events: Toward an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda Journal of Sport & Social Issues 34: pp.49-61
Students should prepare an individual essay of approximately 2500 words.
No need for using subheadings. Essay supposed to be written in a discussional way.
Your essay should address one of the following questions:
1. Critically assess the legacies of World Expos for the host cities that stage them. Use this assessment to recommend whether London should submit a bid for the 2025 World Expo.
2. Critically evaluate instances where one mega-event has been held in the same city shortly after another. Use this evaluation to recommend whether London should submit a bid for the 2025 World Expo.
3. Critically examine the legacies of unsuccessful bids for mega-events. Use this examination to recommend whether London should submit a bid for the 2025 World Expo.
4. Critically review the legacies of previous mega-events staged in London. Use this review to recommend whether London should submit a bid for the 2025 World Expo.
The coursework is assessed according to the following criteria:
1. Research and Knowledge:
Evidence of a thorough investigation, sound knowledge of the topic.
2. Understanding and Analysis:
Understanding of the topic, focused on the topic, analytical, sound conclusions.
3. Structure and organisation:
Logically structured and clearly argued.
4. Standard of presentation:
Information and ideas presented in a clear and reasoned manner.
Frawley, S. and Adair, D. Eds. (2013) Managing the Olympics. MacMillan.
Frawley, S. and Adair, D. Eds. (2014) Managing the Football World Cup. MacMillan
Gold, J. and Gold, M. Eds. (2010) Olympic Cities. Routledge.
Roche, M. (2000) Mega Events and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture. Routledge
Smith, A. (2012) Events and Urban Regeneration: the Strategic Use of Events to Revitalise Cities. Routledge.
Further reading (books)
Bennett, C. and Haggerty, K. (2011) Security Games Surveillance and Control at Mega-Events. Routledge.
Bernstock, P. (2014) Olympic Housing: A Critical Review of London 2012’s Housing Legacy. Ashgate.
Bladen, C et al. (2012) Events Management: an Introduction. Routledge
Boykoff, J. (2013). Celebration Capitalism and the Olympic Games. Routledge.
Clark, G. (2008) Local Development Benefits of Staging Global Events. OECD
Foley, M. McGillivray, D. and McPherson, G. (2012) Event Policy: From Theory to Strategy. Routledge
Fussey, P. Coaffee, J. Armstrong, G. and Hobbs, D. (2011) Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City. Ashgate
Gold, J. and Gold, M. (2005) Cities of Culture: Staging International Festivals and the Urban Agenda, 1851-2000, Ashgate.
Grix, J. (Ed.). (2014). Leveraging Legacies from Sports Mega-Events: Concepts and Cases. Palgrave Macmillan.
Hayes, G. and Karamichas, J. (2012) Olympic Games, Mega-Events, and Civil Societies: Globalization, Environment, Resistance. Palgrave Macmillan
Hiller, H. (2013). Host Cities and the Olympics: An Interactionist Approach. Routledge.
Jennings, W. (2012) Olympic Risks. Palgrave Macmillan
Kassens- Noor, E. (2012) Planning for Olympic legacies: transport dreams and urban realities. Routledge.
Monclus, F-J. (2009) International Exhibitions and Urbanism: the Zaragoza Expo 2008 Project. Ashgate.
Pitts, A. and Liao, H. (2009) Sustainable Olympic Design and Urban Development. Routledge.
Poynter, G. and MacRury, I. (2009) Olympic Cities: 2012 and the Remaking of London. Ashgate.
Poynter, G., Viehoff, V., & Li, Y. (Eds.). (2015). The London Olympics and Urban Development: The Mega-Event City. Routledge.
Rojek, C. (2013). Event Power: How Global Events Manage and Manipulate. Sage.
Smith, A. (2016) Events in the City: Using Public Spaces as Event Venues. Routledge.
Tomlinson, A. (2014). FIFA: The Men, the Myths and the Money. Routledge.
Viehoff, V., & Poynter, G. (Eds.). (2015). Mega-event Cities: Urban Legacies of Global Sports Events. Ashgate.
Weed, M. (2008) Olympic Tourism. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Further reading (journal papers)
Carriere, J. And Demaziere, C. (2002) Urban Planning and Flagship Development Projects: Lessons from Expo 98, Lisbon, Planning Practice and Research, 17(1), pp. 69-79.
Chalip, L. (2004) Beyond Impact: A Generalised Model for Host Community Event Leverage. In B. Ritchie and S. Adair (Eds.), Sports Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues, pp.226-252. Clevedon: Channel View.
De Almeida, B. S., Bolsmann, C., Júnior, W. M., & de Souza, J. (2015). Rationales, rhetoric and realities: FIFA’s World Cup in South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(3), 265-282.
De Groote, P. (2005) A Multidisciplinary Analysis of World’s Fairs (Expos) and their Effects. Tourism Review 60(1), pp.12-19.
Edizel, Ö. (2013). Mega-events as a place marketing strategy in entrepreneurial cities: İzmir’s EXPO 2015 candidacy as a roadmap for hosting EXPO 2020. Town Planning Review, 84(5), 633-657.
Fourie, J.and Santano-Gallego (2011) The Impact of Mega-Sport Events on Tourist Arrivals. Tourism Management, 32, pp.1364-1370
Giulianotti., R and Klauser, F (2010) Security Governance and Sport Mega-events: Toward an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda Journal of Sport & Social Issues 34: 49-61
Haugen, H. (2005): Time and space in Beijing’s Olympic bid, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 59:3, 217-227
Horne, J. (2007). The Four ‘Knowns’ of Sports Mega-Events. Leisure Studies, 26(1), pp. 81-96.
Horne, J., & Manzenreiter, W. (2006). An Introduction to the Sociology of Sports Mega-Events. Sociological Review, 54(SUPPL. 2), pp. 1-24.
Horne, J. (2015). Sports mega-events–three sites of contemporary political contestation. Sport in Society, 1-13.
James, M. and Osborn, G. (2011), London 2012 and the Impact of the UK’s Olympic and Paralympic Legislation: Protecting Commerce or Preserving Culture?.The Modern Law Review, 74: 410–429.
Liao, H & Pitts, A (2006): A brief historical review of Olympic urbanisation, The International Journal of the History of Sport, 23:7, pp.1232-1252
Masterman, G (2008) Losing Bids, Winning Legacies: An Examination of the Need to Plan for Olympic Legacies Prior to the Bidding: https://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/ISOR/isor2008u.pdf
Matheson, V. A. (2006) Is Smaller Better? A Comment on “Comparative Economic Impact Analyses” by Michael Mondello and Patrick Rishe. Economic Development Quarterly, 20(2), 192-195.
Minnaert, L. (2012): An Olympic legacy for all? The non-infrastructural outcomes of the Olympic Games for socially excluded groups (Atlanta 1996–Beijing 2008). Tourism Management 33.2 361-370.
Müller, M. (2015) What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes, Leisure Studies, 34:6, 627-642, DOI: 10.1080/02614367.2014.993333
Müller, M. (2015) The Mega-Event Syndrome: Why So Much Goes Wrong in Mega-Event Planning and What to Do About It, Journal of the American Planning Association, 81:1, 6-17, DOI: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1038292
Oliver, R. (2014). The legacies of losing: rethinking the ‘failure’ of Toronto’s Olympic Games bids. Sport in Society, 17(2), 204-217.
Porter, L., Jaconelli, M., Cheyne, J., Eby, D. and Wagenaar, H. (2009) Planning Displacement: The Real Legacy of Major Sporting Events. Planning Theory & Practice, 10(3), pp.395-418.
Preuss, H. (2004). The Economics of Staging the Olympics. Northampton: Edward Elgar.
Preuss, H. (2007) The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Mega Sport Event Legacies. Journal of Sport and Tourism 12, Nos. 3–4, pp. 207–227.
Preuss, H., & Schnitzer, M. (2015). Organization Costs for a Fifa World Cup and Their Significance During a Bid. Event Management, 19(1), 57-72.
Rose, A. K., & Spiegel, M. M. (2011). The Olympic effect. The Economic Journal, 121(553), 652-677.
Sánchez, F., & Broudehoux, A. M. (2013). Mega-events and urban regeneration in Rio de Janeiro: planning in a state of emergency. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 5(2), 132-153.
Smith, A. (2014) Using Temporary Venues to Stage the Games. Lessons from London 2012. Available from. https://library.la84.org/SportsLibrary/ISOR/isor2014u.pdf
Smith, A. (2014) Borrowing Public Space to Stage Major Events. The Greenwich Park Controversy. Urban Studies 51(2), pp. 247–263
Smith, A. (2014) From green park to theme park? Evolving legacy visions for London’s Olympic Park. Architectural Research Quarterly, 18(4), pp.315-323.
Smith, A. (2014) De-Risking East London. Olympic Regeneration Planning 2000-2012. European Planning Studies 22(9), pp. 1919-1939
Smith, A. (2014) Leveraging Sport Mega-Events: New Model or Convenient Justification? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6(1), pp.15-30.
Smith, A. (2009) Theorising the Relationship between Major Sport Events and Social Sustainability. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14(2-3), pp.1-12.
Smith, A. (2007) Large-Scale Events and Sustainable Urban Regeneration: Key Principles for Host Cities. Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.178-190
Smith, A. and Fox, T. (2007), ‘From ‘Event-led’ to ‘Event-themed’ Regeneration: The 2002 Commonwealth Games Legacy Scheme’. Urban Studies Vol. 44, No. 5/6, pp. 1125-1143.
Thamnopoulos, Y. and Gargalianos, D. (2002) ‘Ticketing of Large Scale Events: The Case of Sydney 2000 Olympic Games’, Facilities 20(1/2): 22–33.
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